The Return of Direct Defense in Europe: The Challenges for Germany


We have been looking at the strategic shift for the liberal democracies from a primary focus on the land wars in the Middle East to the challenge of dealing with crisis management involving peer competitors who can engage in force-on-force conflict.

We have done so both with regard to the Pacific and with regard to Europe.

We have focused on the UK, the Nordics and in this report shift our attention to Germany.

Based in part on recent interviews and meetings with German defense experts and former senior Bundeswehr officers, the report looks at the challenges facing Germany as it too addresses the direct defense challenge.

This is the third version of the report which was released on March 5, 2019.



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